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网架 安全保证措施!

文章出处: 发表时间:2017-12-28【

第八章  网架 安全保证措施
Chapter 8 Security Assurance Measures
一、高处作业安全技术措施
1. Height operation security measures
  (1)施工负责人应对工程的高处作业安全技术负责并建立相应的责任制。施工前,应逐级进行安全技术教育及交底,落实所有安全技术措施和人身防护用品,未经落实不得进行施工。
(1) Project director is responsible for the Height operation security measures and set up responsibility system. Before construction, make sure all the security measures and human protective goods are put into practice.  
  (2)高处作业中的安全标志、工具、仪表、电气设施和各种设备,必须在施工前加以检查,确认其完好,方能投入使用。
(2)Check all the security marks, tools, instruments, electrical facilities and all the other equipment, make sure that they are good to work before operation.
  (3)攀登和悬空高处作业人员及搭设高处作业安全设施的人员,必须经过专业技术培训及专业考试合格,持证上岗,必须定期进行体格检查。
(3)Climbing, hanging and erecting operators should pass the qualification examination and timely take physical inspection.
  (4)悬空作业处应有牢靠的立足处,并必须视具体情况,配置防护栏网、栏杆或其他安全设施。
(4)Hanging operation should be conducted on solid position and guard rails, railing, or other security facilities should be set up according to actuality.
  (5)悬空作业所用的索具、脚手板、吊篮、吊笼、平台等设备,均需经过技术鉴定或检证方可使用。
(5)Ragging, scaffolding, baskets, cages, platforms,etc. for hanging operation should have the technical certificate before putting into use.
  (6)施工中对高处作业的安全技术设施,发现有缺陷和隐患时,必须及时解决;危机人身安全时,必须停止作业。
(6)Find solutions to the bugs or mistakes of height operation security measures. Operation should be imtely stopped when it endangers operators.
  (7)施工作业场所有坠落可能的物件,应一律先行撤除或加以固定。
(7)objects that are possible to fall down should be removed or fixed.
  (8)高处作业中所用的物料,均应堆放平稳,不妨碍通行和装卸。工具应随手放入工具袋;作业中的走道、通道板和登高用具,应随时清扫干净;拆卸下的物件及余料均应及时清理运走,不得任意乱置或向下丢弃。传递物件禁止抛掷。
(8)All materials for height operation should be stably stocked, no disturbing for passing or loading and unloading. Tools should be put back to bags. Passage  under working, passageway, climbing utensils should be clear out. Materials unloaded and extra materials should be taken away, no split or left behind. No throwing when passing objects.
  (9)雨天进行高处作业时,必须采取可靠的防滑措施。
(9) Non-slip precautions should be taken when conduct height operations during rainy days.
  (10)因作业必需,临时拆除或变动安全防护设施时,必须经施工负责人同意,并采取相应的可靠措施,作业后立即恢复。
(10)Temporary change of security facilities should get permission of director and restore it after operation.
 二、临时用电安全措施
2. Security measure for temporary electricity
  (1)施工现场操作工必须经过国家现行标准考核合格后,持证上岗工作。
(1) Site operator should get the national standard qualification.
  (2)各类用电人员必须通过相关安全教育培训和技术交底,掌握安全用电基本知识和所用设备的性能,考核合格后方可上岗工作。
(2)All personnel related to usage of electricity should take security and technical training to understand all basic knowledge of electricity and performance of facilities. Work after qualification.
  (3)安装、巡检、维修或拆除临时用电设备和线路,必须由电工完成,并应有人监护。
(3)Install, inspect, repair or remove the temporary electricity facilities and wires should be finished by electrician with assistance.
  (4)临时用电工程定期检查应按分部、分项工程进行,对安全隐患必须及时处理,并应履行复查验收手续。
(4) Regular inspection on the electrical facilities should conduct in order and eliminate the hidden dangers and take acceptance of re-inspection.
  (5)总配电箱应设在靠近进场电源的区域,分配电箱应设在用电设备或负荷相对集中的区域,分配电箱与开关箱的距离不得超过30m,开关箱与其控制的固定式用电设备的水平距离不宜超过3m。
(5)General electricity box should be seated on the lead-in power area. Distributed box should be set on area where facilities sit or electricity is frequently used. The distance between distributed box and switch box should be no more than 30m. Horizontal distance between switch box and facilities-in-control should be no more than 3m.   
  (6)每台用电设备必须有各自专用的开关箱,严禁用同一个开关箱直接控制两台及两台以上用电设备(含插座)。
(6)Each electrical facilities should be equipped with particular switch box. It is forbidden for one switch box to control two or more facilities.
三、电、气焊作业的防火措施
3. Fire-prevention measure for electrical and gas welding.
  (1)焊、割作业点与氧气瓶、乙炔瓶等危险物品的距离不得小于10m,与易燃易爆物品的距离不得少于30m。
(1)The distance between cutting and welding site and dangerous materials like oxygen cylinder and acetylene cylinder should be more than 10m. 30m for flammable and explosive materials.
  (2)乙炔瓶和氧气瓶之间的存放距离不得小于2m,使用时两者的距离不得小于5m。
(2)The stock distance between acetylene cylinder and oxygen cylinder should be no less than 2m. 5m when using them.
  (3)氧气瓶和乙炔瓶等焊割设备上的安全附件应完整而有效,否则严禁使用。
(3)Security attachments on welding facilities like acetylene cylinder and oxygen cylinder etc. should be complete and effective. Otherwise they shouldn’t be used for welding or cutting.
  (4)在高处用气割或电焊切割物件时,应采取措施,防止火花飞落伤人。
(4) When cutting or welding in height altitude, it should take measures to prevent fire from hurting people. 
四、吊装作业安全措施
4. Security measures for hoisting operation
   1、起吊作业人员及场地要求
   1.Hoist operator and site requirements
  (1)起吊作业人员包括司机和指挥人员等必须经过专门的安全培训,经考核合格,持特种作业操作资格证书上岗。特种作业人员应按规定进行体检和复审。
(1)Hoist operator including driver and conductor should take security training and work after qualification or with special operation certificate. Special operation operator should take physical inspection and re-inspection.
  (2)起重吊装作业前,应划定危险作业区域,设置醒目的警示标志,防止无关人员进入。还应视现场作业环境专门设置监护人员,防止高处作业或交叉作业时造成的落物伤人事故。
Before hoisting operation, set up dangerous operation area, stand up eye-catching warning signs in case of no-related personnel entering. There should be operational environment inspector in case of falling objects hurting people when height operation or cross operation.
   2、起重设备
   2.hoist equipment
  (1)起重机械按施工方案要求选型,运到现场重新组装后,应进行试运转试验和验收,确认符合要求并记录、签字。起重机经检验后可持续使用并要持有市级有关部门定期核发的准用证。
(1)The hoist equipment decides its model on basis of construction plan and should be tested after delivered to the site and reassembled, and should be recorded and signature after confirmed acceptance. Cranes can be effectively used with municipal department’s certificate. 
  (2)须经检查确认的安全装置,包括超高限位器、力矩限制器、臂杆幅度指示器及吊钩保险装置,且均应符合要求。当该机说明书中尚有其他安全装置时,应按说明书规定进行检查。
(2)Devices to be checked and confirmed including height limiter, moment limiter, boom amplitude indicator and hook insurance devices. Other devices attached in the instruction paper should also be checked.
  (3)起重机要做到“十不吊”,即:超载或被吊物质量不清不吊;指挥信号不明确不吊;捆绑、吊挂不牢或不平衡,可能引起滑动时不吊;被吊物上有人或浮置物时不吊;结构或零部件有影响安全工作的缺陷或损伤时不吊;遇有拉力不清的埋置物时不吊;工作场地昏暗,无法看清场地、被吊物和指挥信号时不吊;被吊物棱角处与捆绑钢绳间未加衬垫时不吊;歪拉斜吊重物时不吊;容器内装的物品过满时不吊。
(3) 10 rules for cranes no to hoist:overloaded or unspecified weight of objects; without straight signals; insecure or unbalanced tying or hanging objects may cause slipping; person or floating thing on the objects; member or element has damages that can cause security operation; embedded object with unclear pulling force; on dark site, or unclear to see environment, object or signal; no fillings between angle of the objects and steel rope; non-straight pulling objects; full of materials inside the holders.
  (4)汽车式起重机进行吊装作业时,行走用的驾驶室内不得有人,吊物不得超越驾驶室上方,并严禁带载行驶。
(4) No person inside the cabin or lifting objects over the cabin, when crane is under work. Traveling with the load is also not allowed. 
  (5)双机抬吊时,要根据起重机的起重能力进行合理的负载分配,操作时要统一指挥,互相密切配合。在整个吊装过程中,两台起重机的吊滑车均应基本保持垂直状态。
(5)Evenly allocate the weight according to the lifting performance of cranes, responding to one commander and cooperate with each other when two cranes working together. During hoisting, trolley of both cranes should be vertical.  
   3、吊点
3. Lifting point
  (1)根据重物的外形、重心及工艺要求选择吊点。
(1)Decide the lifting point according to appearance, weight point and technique.
  (2)吊点时在重物起吊、翻转、移位等作业中都必须使用的,吊点选择应与重物的重心在同一垂线上,且吊点应在重心之上(吊点与重物重心的连线和重物的横截面成垂直),使重物垂直起吊,严禁斜吊。
(2)lifting, turning, moving the object with lifting point. Lifting point should be in the same vertical line of weight point of object(line between lifting point and weight point should be vertical to the cross section of object). And lifting point should be above the weight point. Objects is lifted straight, no leaning.
  (3)当采用几个吊点起吊时,应使各吊点的合力在重物重心位置之上。必须正确计算每根吊索长度,使重物在吊装过程中始终保持稳定位置。当构件无吊鼻需用钢丝绳绑扎时,必须对棱角处采取保护措施,其安全系数为K=6~8;当起吊重、大或精密的重物时,除应采取妥善保护措施外,吊索的安全系数应取10。
(3) The joint force of lifting point should be above the weight point, when hoisting with several lifting points. Exact calculation the length of each rope to keep the object in the stable position. When the object is without hook and need steel rope to tie, measures should be taken to the angles. Safety time K=6~8; when lifting heavy, large, sophisticated object, other than precautions, the safety time should be 10.

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